LAURA BASSI SCHOLARSHIP

The Laura Bassi Scholarship was established by Editing Press in 2018 with the aim of providing editorial assistance to postgraduates and junior academics whose research focuses on neglected topics of study, broadly construed, within their disciplines. The scholarships are open to every discipline and are awarded three times per year: December, April, and August. The value of the scholarships are remitted through editorial assistance as follows:

Master’s candidates: $750
Doctoral candidates: $2,500
Junior academics: $500

These figures reflect the upper bracket of costs of editorial assistance for master’s theses, doctoral dissertations, and academic journal articles, respectively. All currently enrolled master’s and doctoral candidates are eligible to apply, as are academics in the first five years of full-time employment. There are no institutional, departmental, or national restrictions.

Deadlines

Winter 2019

Deadline: 25 November 2019
Results: 15 December 2019

Spring 2020

Deadline: 25 March 2020
Results: 15 April 2020

Summer 2020

Deadline: 29 July 2020 (Please note the extended deadline.)
Results: 15 August 2020

How to Apply

Applicants are required to submit a completed application form along with their CV using the portal prompted by the 'Apply' button below by the relevant deadline.

To help defray the Scholarship’s administrative costs, applicants are subject to a voluntary USD 10.00 fee. All applicants who are unable to pay the application fee are welcome to take advantage of the fee waiver option on the application portal. If you wish to pay the application fee in a non-USD currency, please consult the FAQ below for instructions.

Answers to common questions about the application process are provided in the FAQ section. In order to avoid delays, applicants are encouraged to read the FAQ carefully before writing to us with their questions.

Please do not submit your application material by email, as this would breach our impartiality rules and potentially invalidate your application. If you wish to update your application material, please upload your documents afresh using the same email address as your initial submission. Your dossier will then update automatically. Please also note that your application documents need to be uploaded together rather than separately.

In addition to the Laura Bassi Scholarship, the Bassi Foundation is also pleased to provide a small number of postdoctoral grants for research undertaken at Oxford and Cambridge universities. Prospective applicants are asked to submit a 2-page statement of research and a copy of their CV to scholarships@editing.press by 25 January 2020.

Bassi Scholars

For a list of Bassi Scholars, past and present, including statements of research, please see below.

Derrais Carter’s manuscript, Patriarchal Blackness (co-authored with Andres Guzman), examines the manifold ways that racial ideology fuses with patriarchal thought in contemporary Black popular culture. Specifically, the manuscript addresses how Black cultural producers mobilize a patriarchal politic that centers cisgendered, heterosexual Black men as the basis for cultural thought and criticism. 

Patriarchal Blackness extends recent Black Studies scholarly projects that address the relationship between blackness and patriarchy including Vexy Thing: On Gender and Patriarchy by Imani Perry and The Promise of Patriarchy: Women and the Nation of Islam by historian Ula Yvette Taylor. Patriarchal Blackness also contributes to Black feminist scholarship by advancing an analysis that examines the deceptive allure of patriarchy in fantasies of Black resistance.

Spencier Ciaralli's project, Female Sexual History and Pleasure, aims to deconstruct and reframe our current understanding of female pleasure through the use of narratives of women speaking about their sexual history and pleasures, with a focus on how women conceptualize their own experience and compare it to dominant narratives. By taking a critical approach, Ciaralli's research explores the organization of power and domination, with interests in the interrogation of hierarchies of power and the lived experiences of social location within said hierarchies. By considering women’s narratives, one must consider the social, cultural, and political stakeholders who benefit from maintaining a particular understanding of female pleasure and the female body. This research seeks to fill a gap in the literature on sexual histories, pleasures, orgasms, and kink narrative by centering the voices of women.

When watching films, reading scholarly articles, or flipping through a magazine, it is eerily easy to ignore the lack of representation of women’s voices when discussing sex or sexual pleasure. When we discuss women in the bedroom, we too often talk about or for them, failing to recognize that when we make assumptions of what a woman desires or should be, we write a script of what it means to be a “normal” woman, which is a mold many women may fail to fit. Understanding how complex and diverse female sexuality is experienced, as well as who benefits and who loses when defining female sexuality, is imperative in striving toward equitable pleasure, and creating safe spaces for women to discuss and explore their desires. Addressing the root causes of social injustice in women’s sexual life stories is the first step in creating a discussion surrounding the long-held taboo: female sexual pleasure.

Afro-German women’s scholarly works have brought attention to their important contributes to German society by giving voice to the existence and identity of Afro-German history. Scholars of German nationalism marginalized the existence of Afro-Germans, and it was not until 1986 that a group of young German women formed the first national organization of Black Germans, Initiative Schwarze Deutsche, and coined the term ‘Afro-German’. This was a time when Germany’s native population of Afro-Germans began to trace their lineage to 19th-century immigrants from German-controlled African colonies. Prior to this, their identities failed to be included in the nation’s census and official histories. The last three decades, however, have revealed Afro-German women’s efforts in academia in gaining recognition for the Afro-German community and in expanding the answer to the question ‘Who is German?’ Using discourse analysis, Amber G. Johnson investigates the texts of Afro-German, African American, and German nationalist historians, and finds that ‘Afro-Germans’ have long been ‘othered’ in scholarly narratives of German history. With these texts, Johnson challenges middle passage epistemology in order to shed light on the lived experience of Afro-Germans, more speficially those directly impacted by Adolf Hitler’s belief that their presence in Germany was part of the desecration of the white race.

Johnson’s research contributes to the fields of history, sociology, women’s studies, and science technology & society studies by providing a new perspective on racial Blackness in the African Diaspora, women’s impact on mainstream German history, and African American / Afro-German efforts to invoke change nationally and internationally. These narratives are often excluded in the analysis of how knowledge moves across borders for the greater good of the nation-state. Johnson’s research reveals how two groups actively resisted the nation-state through social justice movements and stood in solidarity against the racial antagonism of the Jim Crow South and Nazi Germany.

Thembela Ndesi's study is a combination of composed and written texts, aiming to explore the use of music in African science fiction on screen. Ndesi's focus on music’s role in imagining African futures (or, occasionally, alternative presents) seeks to emphasise the extrapolative nature of science fiction. The trend of composers conforming to generic film music tropes and the seeming lack of experimentation in science fiction music would appear to be true also for the African-set science fiction films. These, too, seem to draw on generic musical strategies and tropes from music in science fiction film generally. It is, in part, this failure of imagination in producing a distinctly ‘South African’, ‘Malian’, etc., science fiction aesthetic that this study seeks to examine. While the setting and visuals of such films might be distinctively and ingeniously ‘African’, the music can often seem generic and somewhat bland. While it is certainly the case that the majority of composers commissioned to score high profile African science fiction films are westerners, the same generic tropes crop up in South African-authored film music (in Fabian Sing’s music for Room 9, for example). One of the questions Ndesi's study seeks to investigate, using both composed and written texts, is what a truly South African, Malian, Cameroonian, etc., might science fiction music sound like. How might a composer consider incorporating ‘African’ compositional elements or techniques (those associated with Zimbabwean mbira music, for example, or Zairean rumba, perhaps) in order to contribute to a particularly ‘African’ science fiction aesthetic?

Ndesi's study attempts to answer both analytically and creatively what a less-imported, less generic, and more locally-rooted musical representation for such films might sound like, and why there often seems to be a failure of imagination in the production of some African science fiction soundtracks. While works such as Lesilo Rula, Yeelan, District 9, Pumzi, Room 9(2012), Chappie, and Crumbs (2015) are all evidence of African-set science fiction, there has been little sustained critical study of music in African film generally and little to none in relation to African science fiction.

Violence against women is a global public health and human rights concern rooted in gender inequality. One in three women report violence exposure in their lifetime (World Health Organization, 2013), but the prevalence of victimization varies greatly between countries (Heise & Kotsadam, 2015). The wide geographic variation in the prevalence of violence against women worldwide might be explained by the geographic variation in gender-based structural stigma (i.e., societal-level conditions, cultural ideology, and institutional laws and policies that constrain opportunities, resources, and wellbeing of women; Hatzenbuehler & Link, 2014). Compelling evidence suggests that gender-based structural stigma perpetuates gender inequality and the subordination of women and can even shape risk of violence.

To examine the role of gender-based structural stigma on violence against women, we took advantage of a rare opportunity that combines multiple methodological advances. Specifically, the Violence Against Women Survey represents one of the largest population-based data sets of women, including 42,000 women from 28 countries across Europe. We examined associations between gender-based structural stigma and violence-related outcomes among women, including physical violence exposure, reporting violence to police, expecting violence, knowing that legal action was taken against the perpetrator, and seeing campaigns or media addressing violence against women

Preliminary population-based studies demonstrate that women living in high gender-based structural stigma countries disproportionately experience violence (Heise, 2012). These few studies are limited, however, in their use of self-reported perceptions of structural stigma and lack of geographic variation and comprehensive violence assessments. To address this limitation, and given that structural stigma is a complex and dynamic process, it is critical to include an objective measure of structural stigma.

Additionally, without sufficient geographic variation, there are limitations with which researchers can assert that macro-level factors account for the geographic distribution of violence. Further, no study has examined country-level variation levels of violence-related outcomes among women using population-based data. We have the unique combination of individual level information on violence-related outcomes, in combination with objective measures of gender-based structural stigma. This enables us to simultaneously test the influence of structural factors controlling for individual level risk factors and potential cross-level interactions.

What makes a good listener? What does it mean to be a good listener in contemporary society? Nanase Shirota’s ethnographic project investigates the art of listening in hostesses (escorts) and listening volunteers in Japan. At night clubs in Tokyo, hostesses, who are famous for being good listeners, use listening as a survival skill. Their listening is a ‘weapon of the weak’, gaining male customers’ favour, while intensifying the division of labour in interactions. Conversely, listening volunteers who communicate with elderly people use listening for reaching out. However, they sometimes fall short, unintentionally forcing interlocutors to stay in a subordinate helpee’s position. Listening can be a mask of silent authority. Listeners’ perspectives reveal influences of ‘power’ and subtle mechanisms of interaction.

Our society neglects listening. People wish to be competent speakers but not listeners. Reflecting this, most studies on interactions were conducted from the speakers’ perspectives but not listeners’ perspectives. Researchers in communication and sociolinguistics have recently realised this omission and within the field of sociology and anthropology, my research would be pioneering work. The research also contributes to the study of emotional labour and gender relations in contemporary Japan. Although Anne Allison’s study of a hostess club in bubble time is insightful and influential, her research missed subtleties in communication. I became a hostess and listening volunteer and carried out participant observation. This methodologically challenging research provides rich ethnographical data and arrives at a better understanding of human interaction.

Abibah Sumana's project seeks to explore the various dynamics of the Adinkra Symbols and how they embody an indigenous African Philosophy. This is done by identifying the various signs and symbols which make up the concept of the Adinkra and the role they played both as indigenous communication forms among the Akans, before the advent of modern forms of writing, as well as recording for posterity the thoughts, feelings, and values of the people. The goal is to show that indeed before the coming of “foreigners”, indigenous Africa had reached a level where it could develop a system which would record for generations the various happenings in the society.

Sumana's research will be of use to the field of African Studies because it touches on key themes that are typically glossed over in the various writings about the African continent——themes which relate to the art of Black Africa, and how they can help in making a case against the denial and existence of an indigenous African Philosophy. Sumana's study also shows that, in contrast to longheld views about the continent, various methods and styles existed in Africa for the recording of thoughts and feelings for posterity through certain kinds of timeless art.

Tamas' study, In Spectral Company: Impossible Mourning in Early Modern France, examines how ghosts became an object of fascination at the end of the 16th-century in best-selling treatises. At the crossing of many different fields, ghosts are a fascinating object that can be approached by relying on the anthropology of fear, philosophy, scientific discourse, and the history of beliefs. They also inhabit a number of literary texts (especially novels and theater). Being present but referring to the past, they question temporality, especially during the process of mourning. Paradoxically, ghosts can altogether enslave and free the one they haunt. Tamas' book examines the influence of ghosts in the life of widows by comparing historical figures with those portrayed in novels and in the theater.

By working on widows, Tamas hopes to make a significant contribution to the history of women and of religious beliefs in Old Regime France. In 17th-century, the belief in ghosts has its own rationale. It corresponds to a need to conceptualize death and separation. Tamas will explore the religious discourse in light of the court customs and practice. On the one hand, widows who had children needed to remarry in order to sustain the education and the expenses of the household. On the other hand, young widows who did not yet have children wanted to forget about the ghost of their deceased husband. These women strive to free themselves: widowhood empowers them in the public sphere. Theater opens a new rhetorical space of freedom.

Rachel E. Holmes’ manuscript, Clandestine Contracts, draws on original-language literary and legal sources to trace the journey across early modern Europe of the tales of Romeo and Juliet, the Duchess of Malfi, and the siblings Claudio and Isabella in Shakespeare's Measure for Measure. These are tales of clandestine marriage, the mediaeval institution of Christian marriage undertaken outside the recognition of legal authorities, which was increasingly the object of renegotiation across early modern Europe. Clandestine marriage was a pressure point because its illicitness undermined marriage as a managed exogamy, posing a threat to social controls, familial expectations, and honour. Holmes shows that the relationship between versions of these tales is shaped by legal anxieties about clandestine marriage and demonstrates the centrality of legal questions to transnational literary adaptation.

Scholars have long-acknowledged the influence of other European literatures on authors such as Shakespeare, but traditional source study tends towards either formalistic or nationalistic explanations of intertextuality—thinking of adaptation as a purely literary exercise that showcases canonical authors or as a politicised one that reinforces the superiority a national character. In contrast, Clandestine Contracts considers adaptation as an embedded transnational phenomenon shaped by legal as well as literary structures, concepts, and influences. Renaissance Studies will benefit from this research both intellectually and pedagogically, since it seeks to draw scholars and students beyond their disciplinary confines and encourages them to reconsider accepted readings of canonical texts in ways that are attentive to a more dialectical or intertwined literary and cultural history.

Tanusree Jain's manuscript, 'Even Tokens Matter', adopts a critical perspective of extant tokenism scholarship within the management discipline, specifically in the context of women on boards. The manuscript synthesises perspectives from sociology and psychology to suggest that a reductive logic that equates tokens with tokenism fails to fully reflect the latent power of women tokens as potential agents of both personal and inter-group change within organisations.

Jain's work dismantles stereotypes embedded within the token theory by adopting a more nuanced perspective of tokenism, and advocating that the designation ‘token’ in relation to a female board appointment should be regarded as qualitatively neutral in terms of the ex post facto contribution of the individual to board dynamics within a spectrum of organisational circumstances. In this manner, "Even Tokens Matter" advances a layered token theory that will have relevance for gender discourse and management.

Sarah Liva’s manuscript, 'Information and health service needs of new mothers: A scoping review' (co-authored by Christine Ou), collates the literature to identify the information and health service needs women and professionals view as priorities for supporting a healthy postpartum transition. Women’s risk for mental health disorders, intimate partner violence, decreased relationship quality, pelvic floor and sexual health dysfunction, and physical morbidity increase during the year following childbirth (i.e., postpartum period). Attention to postpartum care services is increasingly important with growing evidence identifying the magnitude and scope these post-birth concerns and strength of the relationship between maternal mental health and lifetime infant health status.

Liva and Ou's manuscript maps the scope, breadth, and trends in women and professionals’ views about postpartum care fills an important literature gap. Support for women during the postpartum has decreased in the context of demedicalization and normalization of birth, yet post-birth issues may emerge beyond traditional follow-up periods and increase in severity across the postnatal year. Women and professionals across diverse disciplines and sectors have increasingly critiqued postpartum care service delivery and identified care and information priorities, but a clear view about the breadth and nature of these perspectives is limited by the lack of a scoping review. This work enhances clarity on women’s postpartum care priorities across stakeholders and disciplines, which is an important step in determining how to orient services and improve care.

Moeini’s project, Effect of Coflow Turbulence on the Dynamics and Mixing of a Turbulent Axisymmetric Jet , examines how the dynamical velocity field and hydrodynamical mixing of an axisymmetric jet issued into a moving environment is affected as the turbulence of the environment is varied from low to high values. Moeini's experimental data sheds new light on the evolution of shear flows in the presence of external turbulence. The secondary objective, which arose during the experiments, is to improve the acoustic Doppler velocimetry (ADV) measurements. ADV is a comparatively new instrument for the measurement of turbulent flows, which are extensively used in various studies of hydraulic engineering, but their accuracy in predicting the statistics of turbulence quantities has been questioned. Moeini's model offers an opportunity to improve the precision of ADV measurements in turbulent flows.

Many practical engineering applications, ranging from acidic discharges from ships and brine disposals from desalination plants, to release of organic wastes into water bodies and gaseous emissions into the atmosphere, frequently occur in the form of turbulent jets. After their initial release, contaminants may have harmful effects both to public health and the environment. This underscores the special status of the study of the impacts of such jet-based releases, which sporadically or permanently contaminate the environment. Moeini’s project addresses, from an experimental viewpoint, how the turbulence of the environment could increase the dilution rates of the turbulent jets as in the case of the discharged contaminants. Our knowledge of this aspect has been at best partial, and thus Moeini’s work attempts to fill the gap in the experimental and theoretical framework.

Ngidi's qualitative study examines the extent to, and ways in which, a group of 27 adolescent orphans in a school living in the Inanda, Ntuzuma and Kwamashu (INK) township precinct in the greater Durban region of South Africa understand their vulnerability to sexual violence in and around their township's secondary school. Specifically, Ngidi's study explores the ways in which the participants experienced, responded to, and resisted sexual violence in and around their school. The inquiry is positioned within a critical paradigm, and employed participatory visual-methodologies (PVM) in its efforts to take an approach-based on the notion of research as an intervention. Informed by the transformative learning theory, findings show that sexual violence was a persistent threat in the lives of adolescent orphans.

Ngidi’s work is concerned with the methodological approaches that were appropriate and ethically sound for engaging vulnerable orphans. The PVM approaches Ngidi selects are experienced as creative and fun by the adolescent orphans who participated in the study. These methodologies placed orphans at the centre of the research and provided them with a safe space to explore and represent their experiences of sexual violence. The methodologies further made what is often invisible, visible and made knowledge that is often silenced, spoken. Ngidi’s work helps inform school-based interventions that are aimed at developing and nurturing care and support frameworks for vulnerable children.

Christian democratic parties are not known to be feminist allies. Yet, in Germany, the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) has adopted several feminist policies directly violating the traditional gender ideology underpinning the party’s beliefs about traditional womanhood and family values. Och’s work shows that the position of feminist actors in the policy making process matters greatly: policy success is more certain when feminist actors are gatekeepers and insiders in the policy making process. To illustrate this argument, Och explores two cases of feminist policy adoption in Germany: the adoption of partner months in 2006 which provides financial incentives to fathers to take childcare leave and the adoption of the corporate board quota law which mandates a 40% quota for women on corporate boards in 2015.

Och’s work allows us to draw two main conclusions that have more general implication on how we understand feminist policy adoption: first, feminist actors in the CDU did not merely adopt feminist rhetoric for political gain but rather expressed strong feminist sentiments and attitudes often going against the more traditional sentiments of the CDU. Second, the mere presence of feminist actors is not enough. Instead, we must ensure that they occupy pivotal roles – especially in environments perceived as hostile towards feminist ideals – if we hope to advance feminist policies. This means that it is not enough to elect women to office, but we need to ensure that they are placed in positions of power both within parties and in the policy-making process.

In recent years, scholars across the humanities have argued that the American abolitionists articulated important conceptual lessons about democracy. Ramesh's work contributes to this literature by newly interpreting the political thought of Charles Sumner. Regnant scholarly treatments of Sumner have been narrowly biographical. Ramesh shifts focus by looking to the theoretical content of his writings and speeches, focusing on his use of the word caste as an analytic and political term. Ramesh’s essay demonstrates that Sumner adopted the language of caste from missionary accounts of caste hierarchy in India; that he used this information to argue that there was an oppressive analogue at home: racial caste; and that, accordingly, Sumner’s conception of abolition included the dismantling of racial caste and the cultivation of interracial republican association.

Ramesh's research advances the field of political theory in the following ways. First, it offers new insights into a figure well-known to American historians but less so to political theorists: Charles Sumner. Second, it speaks to broader debates in the humanities about the contribution of the American abolitionists to democratic theory. Third, it excavates an entirely neglected dimension of Sumner’s thought – namely, his engagement with Hindu caste and the conception of racial caste in America that he developed on the basis of this engagement. Fourth, it contributes to nascent but fast-growing literature in intellectual history and political theory that emphasizes the importance of the transnational circulation of ideas in the development of political concepts central to our lives today.

As medically-assisted dying becomes more widely legalised, nurses are going to be presented more frequently with requests for access to that end-of-life service. Legislation in nearly every jurisdiction where assisted dying is legal does not recognise the role of nurses in providing access to this service. Yet nurses can influence the process and outcome of how a request is initially managed, since nurses are the professional who most frequently receive the initial request for access. This study of Australian nurses will build on existing research to identify the predictors for how a nurse intends to respond. There are many ways to respond to such requests, and even more influences that guide the selection of a response.

Nursing educators will benefit from the outcomes of this research. A significant theme that emerges from studies about nurses' participation in assisted dying is a lack of preparation for managing this encounter. Lack of preparation does not mean being unaware of protocols, where they exist, but rather not having the communication strategies when a patient requests help to hasten death. What the nurse communicates in this moment depends on the cognitive rehearsals for what to say, in other words, what the nurse intends to say. Simulation exercises are becoming routine in nursing training for specific procedures as simulations can incorporate evidence into clinical actions. Understanding the predictors of intentions to respond can provide evidence for developing learning modules that simulate effective communications at the end-of-life.

Daphne Choi argues that there needs to be a systematic organisation of the green and sustainable programs implemented in prison in order to facilitate offender changes and desistance. Otherwise, such programs will represent nothing more than a cost-saving scheme for prisons, with no additional benefits for the prisoners or the wider community upon release of those prisoners. Choi’s thesis therefore endeavours to establish a sustainability model that would fit into the penal setting for promoting desistance, then applying that model to the field of criminology and modelling onto current prison practice. The potential impact and effectiveness of this new sustainability model will be exemplified by two types of sustainable practices: therapeutic horticulture programs and animal programs. The impact of these practices on promoting desistance post-release will be uncovered, providing a new hypothesis about the potential impact of these programs during and after incarceration.

While no existing studies have built a link between sustainability and desistance or provide an understanding of desistance from a sustainability perspective, Choi's research offers a theoretical contribution to the penology promotes desistance in prison. This is done through examining the impact of sustainable prison programs on desistance and hence providing a practical model for the development of future sustainable programs. Choi's work uniquely indicates how offenders have changed and developed their desisting journey according to the hypothesised sustainability model through investigating the reported benefits of the two types of sustainable practices. A theoretical model that can help direct prisons towards more effective practices instead of current traditional and less effective way of rehabilitating offenders can then be developed to improve the effectiveness of penal rehabilitation and offender reintegration.

The Spanish language abilities of bilingual Latinx youth in secondary schools have been measured through various indicators of proficiency: grammar competency, functional language use, and literacy. Several studies highlight the problematic tensions that arise around issues of identity, variance, equity, and power when proficiency fails to embrace the literacy practices that bilingual Latinx youth bring to the Spanish classroom. García’s manuscript uses Spanish curricular materials as a point of entry to examine dominant discourses of proficiency that circulate Spanish classrooms and the role of literacy in those discourses. Using a racioliteracies perspective and policy discourse analysis, García identifies two dominant discourses of proficiency and demonstrates what each implies for the development of proficiency amongst bilingual Latinx youth. García argues that these discourses of proficiency are informed by classist and racists forces and are complicit in the reproduction of dominant language and literacy hierarchies that discursively re/produce two dominant subject positions available for bilingual Latinx students in Spanish classrooms.

García’s work offers important insights into two fields of study: applied linguistics and literacy. Bilingual Latinx students, often times referred to as heritage language students, have been the source of much contention in second language acquisition and bilingual education research fields based their heterogenous nature and need for language development approaches that fit their needs. García challenges the curricular materials made available to educational actors via dominant curricular materials, considering the extent to which research-based recommendations are appropriated in ways that continue to marginalize a student population that has historically received little attention. The theoretical orientation of this manuscript provides a critical analysis of differentiation strategies and deciphers the racial tensions that undergird them. It posits that literacy, as a construct, is complicit in the guising of these detrimental effects. In doing so, García provides the field of literacy with a concrete theory of subject formation, responding to various calls for such an approach in critical literacy studies.

Greaves’ book examines Arctic security and environmental change from the perspectives of two states—Canada and Norway—and the Inuit and Sámi peoples, respectively, who reside within them. It explores two related questions: Why, has environmental change not been constructed as a security issue by Arctic states? In particular, why has environmental change not been constructed as threatening within state policy when it is understood and articulated as such by Indigenous peoples who live within the Arctic region? Drawing from extensive primary and secondary research, this book bridges insights from across the disciplines of international relations, political science, and environmental studies to examine how environmental changes, state policies, and Indigenous peoples interact to produce different meanings of ‘security’ in the Arctic region.

Greaves' book makes three main contributions. First, it maps out official understandings of Arctic security and environmental change in Canada and Norway historically and in the early-21st century. It then contrasts these with how Arctic Indigenous peoples understand security and its relationship to the natural environment. Finally, it offers a revised account of how security issues are socially constructed to explain why Indigenous understandings are excluded from official state policies. The book contributes to a decolonized conception of Arctic security by highlighting Indigenous perspectives that have been marginalized within dominant security discourses and practices. Its conclusions call into question conventional understandings of environmental change and Arctic security, and underscores the limitations imposed on marginalized groups’ abilities to advocate for their survival and wellbeing.

Traditionally, a gene has been defined as a specific DNA sequence that, by default, contains at least 300 base pairs. Based on this historical idea of gene configuration, DNA units shorter than that, so-called short ORFs (sORFs), have generally been ignored. In her research, Ina Hollerer aims to elucidate the functions of thousands of formerly neglected sORFs in yeast during meiosis, the specialized cell division that produces germ cells in eukaryotes, including sperm and egg cells in humans. Given that meiotic principles are highly conserved between yeast and mammals, Ina hypothesizes that these short genes also play a role in human development. Her research will hence reveal a new set of functional DNA units and will help to redefine our current understanding of a “gene.”

Hollerer's studies on sORFs in yeast meiosis will reveal a new set of formerly neglected functional DNA units that challenge our current understanding of a “gene.” This will be a door-opener for future research, which will no longer be able to dismiss short DNA units as non-functional. Her studies will also help to better understand the complex process of meiosis. Meiosis is very error-prone in many organisms but the underlying causes are poorly understood. Aneuploidy, the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes as a result of a meiotic error, is observed in 10–30% of human fertilized eggs, usually leading to miscarriage. Ina believes that studying the regulatory elements that control meiotic progression in yeast will help to understand what causes these errors in higher organisms.

Women who immigrate to Canada arrive with bodies shaped by their natal cultures and often with different understandings of health and illness. But what happens when Canadian health care standards are imposed on the global body? Not only are there reported problematic health outcomes for women with female genital cutting (FGC) accessing health care in many Western countries, but their cultural context may not be considered in their medical treatment. There is still a gap in the literature for understanding the social relations that contribute to the experiences that women with FGC face in health care systems across the West. Danielle Jacobson aims to address this gap in the literature by using a methodological approach called Institutional Ethnography (IE). Having already started her research, she is in the process of identifying social relations involved when women with FGC use Toronto’s reproductive medical system. Danielle began in the lived experiences of the women by using qualitative, one-on-one, open-ended interviews. The purpose of her manuscript is to communicate her above thesis research on the reproductive health care interactions between women with FGC and their doctors in Toronto.

Danielle's thesis work contributes to the field since she grounds the research in women’s experiences to better understand the sequence of events (the social relations) that may lead our reproductive health care system to fail women with FGC. Her research is aimed at improving Torontonian medical practice for immigrant women in an integrative and innovative way—an emerging challenge as immigration across the globe increases. Although it is admirable that Canada accepts immigrant populations, we still need to work toward providing adequate reproductive health care for non-Western bodies. With this work, Danielle hopes to contribute to the movement toward a more inclusive Canadian health care system for immigrant women, beginning in Toronto. She also take a reflexive approach to her work, not only about her own positionality, but also about the women’s positionality and the power dynamics at play due to differing social locations. Danielle hopes to take steps to improve the reproductive healthcare experiences and outcomes of immigrant women with FGC by expanding the knowledge of how immigrant women with FGC in Toronto experience healthcare, working toward health systems solutions that better support Toronto’s diverse population of women.

Morreti’s project, The Best Weapon for Peace: Maria Montessori, Education, and Children’s Rights,is an intellectual biography that recovers Maria Montessori’s pacifist work in relation to both her educational activism and the broader international conversation on pacificism. Though Montessori was a well-known pacifist in her day, historians have generally considered her writings on peace as secondary to her pedagogical work—a side intellectual project for a woman more concerned with the practical goal of educating youth. But Moretti argues that the cultivation of world peace was, in fact, the primary motivation for Montessori’s educational project. Moretti draws from war-and-society studies, and the history of humanitarianism, as well as a broad range of unpublished archival material, repositioning Montessori’s work on peace from the margins to the center of her philosophy.

Scholarly work on Montessori is restricted to biographies and monographs that reassert the educator’s place in a line of so-called great women. Often compiled by Montessori disciples, these texts neglect the breadth of her thought and how it was informed by the debates on children’s and refugees’ rights, war prevention, and what would later be called post-traumatic stress disorder rehabilitation. Moretti contextualizes Montessori’s writing on pacifism, conflict prevention, and children’s rights within the larger global debates on these topics, highlighting the numerous conflicting forces that inspired her over time. The Best Weapon for Peace rethinks Montessori’s wide-ranging intellectual legacy, showing her to be not only an influential educator, but a thinker, female intellectual, activist, and above all, pacifist.

Research shows that persons with intellectual disabilities are particularly vulnerable to different forms of violence, particularly sexual violence. The criminal law responds to this in a protectionist manner by adopting a strict approach to determining whether a person with intellectual disability has the capacity to consent to sexual intercourse in sexual offence cases. The courts have placed so much emphasis on protection that they have essentially taken away the sexual autonomy of persons with intellectual disabilities in the same breath. Msipa’s work criticizes the test used by the courts in South Africa to determine capacity to consent to sexual intercourse and seeks to suggest an alternative approach aimed at striking a balance between protection and autonomy.

Msipa works to advance thinking in the area of the sexual rights of persons with intellectual disabilities. In particular, Msipa’s work contributes to existing scholarship by formulating an alternative approach that better strikes the balance between the need to protect persons with intellectual disabilities from abuse and respect their sexual autonomy. This work will impact positively on persons with intellectual disabilities themselves but will also have an impact on the development of the law and thinking in this area.

Iyabosola Busola Oronti’s manuscript,Hypertension Diagnosis and Management in Africa Using Mobile Phones: A Scoping Review (co-authored with Leandro Pecchia), aims to determine the scope of work done on hypertension diagnosis and management in Africa, with emphasis on interventions using the mobile/smart phone. Target 3.4 of the United Nations (UN) and World Health Organization (WHO) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) seeks to reduce premature mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) by one third. Untimely death from NCDs has become a major source of concern in Africa, and the leading risk factor worldwide attributable to death is hypertension. It therefore follows that controlling the incidence of hypertension in Africa will significantly reduce the burden of disease by developing new solutions which are more effective and easier to sustain.

Historically, control and management of hypertension are linked to antihypertensive drug use and hospital visits. More recently however, hybrid therapy regimens are emerging for providing reliable and cost-effective access to health services. This research seeks to create an effective and affordable horizontal model/platform for the design and deployment of medical devices and interfaces that will optimize the diagnosis, monitoring and management of NCDs using ICT, 3D Printing, and Artificial Intelligence (AI), with particular consideration for the peculiar dynamics of low resource settings (LRS). Medical devices design and development will clearly benefit from the adaptation of mobile device interfaces and applications for expanded diagnostic functions, thus presenting opportunities for hypertension control in Africa and globally.

Besides négritude, the term verrition, a hapax legomenon that appears at the very end of the Cahier d’un retour au pays natal (1939–1956), is perhaps the most contested and ambiguous signifier in Aimé Césaire’s celebrated long poem. Calhoun's essay presents new linguistic and literary-historical evidence related to verrition and offers an original reading of the poem’s final stanza. Specifically, the essay elaborates an “articulatory” paradigm for rereading the text of the Cahier. Attending to the semantic and formal dimensions of Césaire’s preoccupation with the physiology of human speech and its metaphors illuminates some of the most important sections of the poem and provides an interpretive framework for understanding a number of Césaire’s neologistic, technical, or archaic usages.

Calhoun's essay sheds new light on a much-studied text, making sense of a term (verrition) and set of tropes that have long puzzled scholars and readers of the Cahier. Participating in a recent, energized return to the text of the Cahier–—in the wake of a new bilingual edition with a masterful translation by N. Gregson Davis and notes and commentary by Abiola Irele——the essay makes an original contribution to scholarship on Césaire and the text of the Cahier,elucidating how language and the body interact in Césaire's poem in more complex ways that has previously been acknowledged.

Colleen Campbell’s research examines Black women’s medical decision-making in obstetrics using qualitative data from New York City.  The issue of maternal health disparities has recently sparked a national conversation on reproductive health inequalities and obstetrics violence in the United States. Medical settings are often characterized by asymmetrical encounters between providers and patients, where meaningful informed consent becomes a vacuous procedural exercise operationalized through a consent form. In obstetrics, women patients are particularly treated as objects of medical power, not agents, of their medical treatment. Campbell's research project examines how Black women specifically negotiate decisions over interventions during birth, including their navigation of informed consent and their experience of routine acts of coercion, mistreatment and obstetrics violence.  Campbell's project also examines a key juxtaposition to informed consent, namely informed refusal, which also serves as a heuristic device for uncovering Black women’s medical subjectivity and agency. Informed refusal not only illuminates obstetrics as a site of contestation, it also sheds light on an important counterbalance to the asymmetrical power relationships within obstetrics. Lastly, the project interrogates how medical distrust, which is produced by social and historical forces, medical abuse and biomedical racialization, informs contemporary relationships in obstetrics.

Campbell's research makes contributions to several fields of scholarly inquiry, including sociology of race and ethnicity, medical sociology, and law and bioethics. Importantly, it challenges the current public framing of maternal health in the U.S. as a problem of biological race, as opposed to, (obstetrics) racism.   Public health discourse often pathologizes Black women by framing them as high-risk bodies that are justifiably over-medicalized because of underlying biological characteristics. This research challenges and critiques this discourse by instead centering the structural, institutional and interpersonal dimensions of obstetrics violence and racism in the U.S.

Jinsoon Cho's manuscript, State Merit-Based Scholarship Programs, Affirmative Action Bans and the Quality of College Freshman, examines how the race-based affirmative action policies and merit-based scholarship programs affect the academic quality of college freshmen in the United States. Affirmative action policies give preferences to college applicants from underrepresented race/ethnic groups in order to increase their upward mobility. Similarly, state merit-based scholarship programs are implemented for the purpose of broadening student access to higher education and increasing college completion rates. However, there are consistent issues regarding the effectiveness of the education policies, since studies have shown that race-based policies in higher education mostly benefit affluent minorities, not the minorities that typically do not have ready access to higher education due to financial difficulties. Cho's manuscript investigates the effectiveness of the education policies by estimating the change in race/ethnic composition and SAT scores of college freshmen.

Cho's work contributes to education economics in several respects. First, Cho examines if the education policies achieve the objective for those who are in need by investigating the causal impact of educational policies on the quality of incoming college students both overall and separately by race and ethnicity on the national level. Secondly, Cho's work provides insights on the size of the impact of education policies by examining the causal impact of such policies using the racial/ethnic composition and SAT scores of incoming college students. 

Adolescents living in South Africa face a high risk of experiencing sexual violence. Nationally representative data on child abuse shows that one in three South African teenagers (15-17 years) have experienced some form of sexual violence. Following the victimization, survivors make important decisions, such as whether to seek support from formal service providers (e.g., the legal, medical and mental health system as well as community victim services) or disclose the incident to informal supporters. However, adolescent survivors are constrained in their help- seeking attempts. Whereas they are expected to increasingly act independently, teenagers are not yet as mature and autonomous as adults and thus, find themselves in a complex situation of increasing rights, limited agency and denied vulnerability. Therefore, it is imperative to further understand their thinking, decision-making and behavior.

Adolescents undergo unique developmental processes characterized by evolving abilities and capabilities as well as changing needs and desires which sets them apart from both children and adults. Yet, limited research exists that directly engages with adolescent women who have experienced sexual violence. As such, Eichstedt's research contributes to the victimological scholarship by capturing the subtle nuances of their decision-making and responses to sexual victimizations. South African teenagers sit at the bottom of the social hierarchy which limits their ability to exercise agency and navigate post-assault response services. Considering the high number of sexual offences experienced by young women and the lifelong impact of this form of victimization, the importance of Eichstedt's research relates to its contribution for theory, practice, and law-making.

Sandhya's doctoral thesis explores the impact of the 1989 Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes Prevention of Atrocities Act (PoA), one of the globally most stringent anti-discrimination laws, on the lives of Dalits (former ‘untouchables’) in Rajasthan, India. She examines the administrative, material, and socio-economic dynamics that shape local Dalit engagement with courts and law enforcement and the mobilization of the PoA by local politicians and activists. She analyses what emotional and social imaginaries the concept of a legally sanctioned battle against inequality can engender, and which notions of justice and restitution arise from them. Finally, Sandhya's work considers the production of legal evidence as a process of socially situated knowledge construction and shows how prejudice can be hidden in legal demands for certain kinds of documents and behaviour.

Sandhya's research is positioned at the intersection of anthropology and critical legal studies. Although legal anthropology is an established part of the discipline, anthropologists have rarely engaged with the problems and opportunities that arise when social movements targeting structural violence are translated into anti-discrimination legislation and move to the courts. Sandhya's work elucidates what happens when communities, characterized by deep socio-economic disparities, become equal litigants in the courtroom. This opens up new questions about evidence, comparability, and truth. Her thesis brings political and legal anthropology in contact with the anthropology of emotion, trauma, and memory. She shows how law—an arguably dry, technical mechanism of dispute resolution—can become complicit in the production of trauma, yet also open up new horizons of hope.

Krause's manuscript documents an experiment that results in a new conceptualisation of language classrooms. Theorisations are catalyzed by long-term research in township English classrooms in South Africa. Here (and globally), language teaching is built on the notion of languages as separate entities and aims at mastering standardised codes. Accordingly, English teaching in townships is failing. Underperformance in standardised tests makes learners appear removed from standard linguistic norms. But are township English classrooms spaces of linguistic deficit, given that residents’ day-to-day languaging is heterogeneous and creative? Taking this heterogeneity seriously, Krause asks: What does language education in Khayelitsha look like through an analytical lens that is not a priori structured by separate languages? In her analyses, Krause does not use linguistic terms that imply a view of languages as discrete entities. Engaging with classroom and interview data, Krause develops new vocabulary to see differently. Khayelitshan English classrooms then emerge not as spaces of deficit but of specific linguistic possibilities. Teachers order these possibilities via a linguistic sorting practice: 'relanguaging'. Its discovery fundamentally changes the way we think about language (classrooms).

Krause demonstrates how existing concepts of language (re)produce blind spots for analysts because they build on a conceptual conflation of linguistic features and named languages, stemming from classical linguistics. Her thought experiment responds to ongoing scholarly efforts to disinvent languages and develop concepts more appropriate for capturing actual language practices. Contributing to sociolinguistics, Krause conceptualizes languaging as a spatial practice and draws on and advances the inchoative notion of spatial repertoires currently discussed in studies investigating spaces like restaurants and gyms. This work makes spatial repertoires relevant for describing linguistically regimented institutional spaces. For applied linguistics, the relanguaging model provides a theoretical critique of ‘translanguaging’ for dichotomizing fluid languaging and standard languages. This covers up the relationality of these dimensions of language, hiding particular didactic techniques and potentials existing in township schools – spaces usually described as ‘peripheral’ and ‘deficient’. Relanguaging puts these schools center stage, showing what could be learned from them globally.

Eugenio Luciano’s research article constitutes a critical translation (Italian to English) of an excerpt from the nineteenth-century Italian geologist Antonio Stoppani's second volume of Note, originally published in 1867. The excerpt translated is Chapter XV, “Neozoic Epoch: Anthropozoic formations.” This chapter constitutes a written source of outstanding value, in that it represents the first instance where a fully scientific characterization of the “Anthropozoic” is given. The translation includes a critical introduction to the geological research context of the nineteenth century, to Stoppani's biography and research, and to Note. Furthermore, the article provides a dedicated section outlining the differences and similarities of the “Anthropozoic” with the recently proposed “Anthropocene” Epoch.

The “Anthropozoic” has regained popularity as a result of the recent interest in the “Anthropocene,” namely, a proposed geological epoch determined by the impact of humankind. Scholars immediately linked the two terms, initiating a debate whether the “Anthropocene” constitutes a theoretical singularity, or its predecessors—such as Stoppani's “Anthropozoic”—anticipated much of its novelty. However, this ongoing debate has not yet delivered a critical translation of perhaps Stoppani's most fundamental writing on the matter, namely, his characterization of the “Anthropozoic.” Luciano’s work seeks to fill this gap by bringing an internationally accessible critical translation of the text that would constitute a valuable work for the new-born field of “Anthropocene studies” as well as the history and philosophy of geology.

Saskia C. Quené´s study provides a detailed analysis, contextualization, and interpretation of 'gilded grounds' in late medieval and early renaissance panel painting. Focusing on Fra Angelico—who took the advantages of the gilded ground seriously while incorporating theological and scientific knowledge (optics, geometry, physics)—her research helps to rethink the ways in which we perceive medieval and renaissance painting. First, she examines the relationship between gilded grounds, planes, and figures in Fra Angelico's Madonne dell' Umiltà to demonstrate the complexities in which the layered picture plane represents. Exploring the reception of the gold ground as an antipode to the reintroduction of perspectival techniques between 1300 and 1500, she proposes new readings of Angelico´s famous depictions of the Annunciation to Mary. Third, she investigated the light-reflecting material in the context of the depiction of Paradise, critically discussing long-standing assumptions connecting the gold ground iconographically to the heavenly realm.

Within the field of art history, Quené´s manuscript contributes to the research on materiality and artist's materials, to the study of spatial representation techniques in the Late Medieval and Early Renaissance era, as well as to the study of Fra Angelico. Extensive gold leaf applications have been summarized under the anachronistic term 'Goldgrund' or 'gold ground' from the 18th century onwards. The term constituted a desideratum in art historical research and neglected the various ways in which artists used gold leaf as an artistic material in late medieval and early renaissance art. Her study will fill this gap.

Noëlle Rohde’s doctoral work is positioned at the intersection of anthropology and philosophy and has two main objectives. Firstly, to ethnographically explore students’ lived experience of being graded in the context of German high school education and secondly, to draw on the empirical insights for fashioning a social epistemology of quantification which informs an ethics of numbers. The school mark is both powerfully invested, playing a pivotal role in determining an individual’s academic and economic opportunities, and an inescapable component of most students’ everyday realities around the world. Understanding how students navigate a context in which there exists a direct, compulsory and decisive link between them and “their numbers” is the main objective of Rohde's project.

Research on the lived experience of being graded generates insights into a key component of young people’s lives. An ethnography of grading gives a voice to students and is thus an important contribution to the otherwise largely technical discourse around assessment in education. Moreover, it can be observed on a global scale that quantification with similar characteristics as grading is becoming more significant in the algorithmic age. Investigating the social dynamics of grading offers insights into these vexing, seemingly ‘new’ issues. Ultimately, the ethnographic work will be distilled into an “ethics of numbers” which was called for ten years ago but has never been realized despite the growing need for such a conceptual foundation.

Mayumi Sato’s project,Anti-Racism in the Digital Age: Everyday Resistance against the Prison-Industrial Complex, aims to reframe our understanding of modern anti-racist praxis against the prison industry. Through a critical and participatory approach, Sato explores how digital technologies reimagine resistance to mass incarceration to formulate new sites of anti-racist protest. Counter-narratives and counter-storytelling disseminated in the digital sphere from marginalized epistemologies can be examined as everyday sites of resistance that normalize new ways of humanizing people who are disenfranchised and unable to communicate with the 'free world.' By examining the channels through which prison justice activists organize, locally and globally, Sato’s research raises underrepresented counter-narratives protesting incarceration and racism to the fore, and unearth new articulations of anti-racist resistance in the digital age.

Due to the emergence of mass incarceration in the Global North, there has been increasing scholarly attention to visible resistance efforts to the prison-industrial complex from inside and outside prisons. But what about the everyday and lesser-visible micro-resistances to carcerality and racism? While mass incarceration disproportionately targets racialized people, there has been little scholarly attention on how citizens mobilizing in digital space, a space that embodies an uneven access divide along racial lines, counteract the racialization of carcerality. Sato’s research contributes to sociological scholarship by looking at the more subtle forms of anti-racist defiance in online spaces that dismantle systems of oppression by normalizing the counter-narratives and efforts of prison justice organizers from a grassroots perspective.

Soboslay's 'Hope in Uncertainty’ examines the ongoing tussle between ethics and aesthetics in contemporary community arts and cultural development practices. Its practice-led methodology addresses care ethics against practice frameworks in order to bring new interdisciplinary perspectives to the field. The notion of an iterative ‘vulnerable authority’—adaptive and responsive to circumstance—brings a compelling dimension to the reflection on feminist care ethics and demonstrates where latent capabilities of care can be exercised. Five case studies address the design of policies and infrastructures that enable or disable care in our projects-in-community. Soboslay's thesis argues for the alignment of the concept of vulnerability with notions of receptivity and reciprocation, rather than through definitions based on deficit and need, demonstrating new ways of enabling participant capabilities.

Soboslay challenges the values of our contemporary audit culture by examining what constitutes care in our practices on the ground. It provides a meta-analysis of key terms such as authority and agency, identifying ways received frameworks (such as ‘applied theatre’) muddy the significance of uncertainty, mess, responsiveness, and multiplicity of forms and processes which can be more respectful to the vibrant and diverse latent capabilities in our communities. Soboslay's thesis identifies that Feminist Care Ethics pays better attention to the key skills of responsiveness, reciprocation and ‘vulnerable authority’ that can generate new aesthetics, in iterative practices that create form as they go. Such perspicacity constitutes an ecology of care—a new term that the thesis contributes to the field.

To preserve the entitlement of Indian property connected to reserve lands, section 89(1) of the Indian Act prevents the seizure or attachment to property on reserve. However, a creditor is also unlikely to grant credit to Indigenous debtors, who require access to capital for Indigenous economic development initiatives, if the creditor cannot enforce its security interest. While there is some case law that has ruled that an individual can waive section 89(1) exemption, it is unresolved in Canadian law whether a Band can waive this exemption. This research argues that to circumvent the Indian Act, the power to waive exemption should be afforded to Bands. This is consistent with Indian laws in jurisdictions such as the United States which permit tribes to waive sovereign immunity.

In legal scholarship, the unique nuances of Indigenous economies and the laws that constrain them has received some limited analysis to date, but is largely under-developed. The extent to which legal scholarship can contribute to legal reform in this area has been obscured by some of the more pressing social justice issues related to Indigenous peoples. This research reflects on how improving Indigenous economies can be a means to overcome historical injustice. The role of provincial and federal policy and law makers is critical to achieving economic justice for Indigenous peoples. As such, the research advocates for legal reform as it relates to laws that impact Indigenous economies. Given the current interest in reconciliation in general, this research could have a significant impact on Indigenous legal scholarship.

Earth’s global geological circulation drives the plate-tectonic cycles of continental drift over hundreds of millions of years and the changing pattern of continents profoundly influences the evolution of life on our planet. The global circulation is driven by the sinking of old and dense oceanic plates into the underlying weaker and buoyant mantle material. Roberta Carluccio’s research for the first-time compiles worldwide observations reporting a very thin and weak layer embedded at the boundary between the Earth’s strong oceanic plates and the underlying mantle and simulates the impact of this layer on plate tectonics and deep mantle dynamics. Carluccio’s work shows how layers embedded in the Earth’s deep interior influence the complexity we observe in natural systems for which little predictive and holistic modelling exists.

The theory of plate tectonics is successful in explaining the broad picture of Earth’s evolution; however, it cannot alone explain why particular geological events happen or predict the specific time or location of an earthquake or a volcanic disaster. In recent decades numerical modelling has become an essential tool in geosciences since rapid progress in technology offers new and exceptional possibilities in the development of multidisciplinary approaches. Carluccio’s research uses numerical models that draw upon knowledge of physics, mathematics, chemistry, geology and computer science to simulate the Earth’s deep interior dynamics and its feedback on plates surface motion. Carluccio’s work provides a novel conceptual framework to reinterpret the geological record of plate-margins, with broader implications for better understanding the evolution of the Earth’s dynamic system.

Suzanne’s research looks at the representative action, a centuries-old procedure underlying the history of class actions and group litigation in England and Canada. The two countries have interpreted the device differently, and this explains their contemporary differences. Canada has class actions, where one person can represent a whole group, whereas England has group litigation orders, requiring each person to sue individually. Seen by many as a historical curiosity, the representative action provides key insights into issues facing class actions today. In Canada, Indigenous groups use representative actions for declarations of their rights. In Ontario, representative actions may fill the gap left by recent restrictive legislation. In England, where class actions are only narrowly available, representative actions have provided a crucial pathway to accessing justice.

The representative action procedure has received some attention in class actions scholarship, but it has been overlooked in recent decades due to more pressing discussions of class action reform worldwide. In addition, the theoretical and doctrinal discussion of the procedure has been fairly limited, and has generally not considered the unique way in which representative actions have historically been used for the litigation of rights held by a group. Suzanne’s research uses historical and empirical study, as well as theoretical and doctrinal analysis, to demonstrate how the representative action can inform the study and practice of class actions today. Her research shows how, in both England and Canada, the procedure can supplement and inform existing reform initiatives and aid in the enforcement of group rights.

Theory-of-mind (ToM) or mentalising refers to our cognitive ability to track and reason about others’ mental states. As the beginning of ToM processing, Level-1 visual perspective-taking (L1VPT) means that people can track what others can and cannot see. However, there is a debate about L1VPT processing. Specifically, adults are slower to judge the number of dots they can see when an avatar sees a different number of dots. This consistency effect is interpreted as an evidence of implicit mentalising- adults track others’ visual perspective even when it is task-irrelevant. The submentalising account however argues the effect reflects attentional orienting. Fan’s work seeks to make headway towards resolution of the debate by marshalling new evidence to dissociate the two competing accounts.

Fan’s findings provided new evidence for evaluating the implicit mentalising versus submentalising debate, which we hope to give scientists further insight into the processing mechanism of L1VPT and processing systems for ToM. Furthermore, researchers may compare whether normal adults and psychopathic patients show different performance in L1VPT processes as psychopathic individuals have deficits in efficiently and implicitly taking others’ visual perspective. This may be even beneficial to further understand their deficit in social behavior related to dysfunction in L1VPT ability, which then lay a solid foundation to figure out some effective interventions to help psychopathic patients improve their social behaviors.

Growing Up Latinx: Young People Troubling Constructions of Citizenship, Rights and Legality in the United States features the stories of Latinx youth coming of age in the U.S., amidst an anti-immigrant political climate, and a sociocultural context that misrecognizes young people as apolitical, acritical, and naïve. The book offers a counter-hegemonic perspective of Latinx youth development through sociopolitical citizenship perspective. Through Latinx youth reflections of their lived experiences, their hopes and dreams, and a sense of belonging, readers are invited to re-think citizenship, rights and legality in the United States alongside Latinx youth stories, voices and experiences. Who is a citizen? What does citizenship mean? What are the implications of having – or being denied – citizenship? These are some of the questions answered through an ethnography of Latinx youth experiences growing up in a low-income working class community in the Central Coast of California. Rethinking citizenship to support the sociopolitical citizenship development of Latinx youth is possible when institutions and adults acknowledge and support the agency and power of young people. In particular, the cultivation of contexts that afford opportunities for Latinx youth critical consciousness, identity development, socioemotional awareness, and political engagement, especially for Latinx youth in immigrant and mixed-status families. Growing Up Latinx calls upon readers, educators, scholars and youth advocates to witness how Latinx youth challenge and trouble U.S. society’s views about who they are as young people and what they are capable of; it offers a humanizing story of Latinx youth in the U.S. 

Growing Up Latinx  is the first to bring together the disciplines of social-community psychology and Latinx Studies with Critical Youth Studies. The scope of this book is multidisciplinary, engaging key perspectives within these three disciplinary areas. The threaded intersections of these disciplines stand to benefit and serve scholars, academics, practitioners, educators, youth and Latinx community advocates who are interested in learning about the unique experiences of Latinx youth coming of age in the United States. Especially among Latinx young people growing up amidst a social and political context that is fret with deficit perceptions of youth, Latinx communities, and an ongoing anti-immigrant and anti-Latinx sentiment. Specific to the field of psychology,  Growing Up Latinx  offers a nuanced analysis of Latinx youth development, their sociocultural contexts, and their sociopolitical learning and wellbeing. As for the disciplines of Latinx Studies and Critical Youth Studies, Growing Up Latinx  brings together the perspectives on race and ethnicity with age, along with other social categories, such as immigration status to describe and illustrate via stories how racism and adultism/ageism shape Latinx youth understandings or meaning-making of citizenship, rights and legality, including notions of belonging and inclusion. The implications and value of this book extend beyond academia as well, given the narrative and ethnographic story-like approach that characterizes its writing.

No One Knows their Blood Type is Jamjoum’s English-language translation of Maya Abu al-Hayat's Arabic-language La Ahad Ya'rif Zumrat Damih. The novella was originally published in 2013 by Dar al-Adab (Beirut), one of the premier publishing houses in the Arab world. It was widely praised in reviews published in several Arab countries, as well as by literary scholars who have consulted Jamjoum’s unpublished translation, which received honorable mention from PEN America’s PEN-HEIM translation grant (2017).

The story centers around Jumana who, together with her sister, was born to a fashionable Lebanese mother and a violently abusive Palestinian father, a PLO guerrilla leader in civil war-era Beirut. Each of the women in the family narrate different chapters, and the chapter told from the father's perspective is told through Jumana's voice (ie that of the author herself). Each chapter is also set in a different city at a different time. It begins in present-day Jerusalem, with the simultaneous death of her father in circumstances that lead Jumana to question her biological paternity. The following chapters take the reader back to Jumana and her sister’s childhood in Beirut, Amman and Tunis before her return to Jerusalem. In the penultimate chapter, Jumana discovers that her only possibility for a DNA test to determine the truth is through an Israeli laboratory, and gathers the courage to travel to West Jerusalem to contract their services.

This text does not aim to argue for the humanity of its characters, or outline the brutality of colonialism or the rights of the colonized, or to illustrate the cruelty of gender oppression. It takes these facets of the workings of power as its starting point. It responds to the traditional Palestinian literary and historical narrative by re-centering it around the female body (rather than the battlefields of anticolonial resistance and postcolonial historiography). In doing so, the text forces the reader to reckon with such questions as: what value is an anti-colonial movement when it is at the expense of its people’s autonomy over their own bodies? Why do we lionize the figure of the revolutionary militant when that militant is invariably transformed into a monster to those they supposedly cherish? Why are questions about motherhood and fatherhood, love and friendship not at the core of conversations about liberty and freedom? If they were, how would that change our conception of resistance?

The text questions the notion of truth in its relation to identity and belonging. The plot highlights blood and nationality as de facto determinants of human relations that allow borders and bureaucracies to administer what is at the core of social bonds. By the end of the story, we can’t help but see these determinants as flat, superficial and even coercively imposed. We are left with nothing but stories, secrets, songs, rumors and lies that emerge as somehow far more concrete components of belonging, even if conflicting, confusing, half-forgotten and often untold.

Kouyoumdjian’s work explores diasporic composers, their work, and their relationships to "home," identity, folk influences, and survivor's guilt. As the daughter of refugees who came to the United States as a consequence of the Lebanese Civil War, and as the granddaughter of refugees of the Armenian Genocide, topics of political/social conflict and one's relationship to "home" have played a large role in my music. While Kouyoumdjian does not label herself as a "political" composer, she do consider herself an empathetic human being, and has thus dedicated much of her compositional work to amplifying the stories of people who may not be in a position to safely speak up for themselves due to sensitive tensions in their environment. Kouyoumdjian dissertation will explore the degrees to which this may or may not be similar to other composers of the diasporic community.

There is very little documentation and literature on contemporary composers/immigrants. Often, classical music literature explores Nationalism around composers like Stravinksy, Shostakovich, Tchaikovsky, etc. Even the term "Nationalism" feels antiquated in 2020. Some diasporic composers may be highly influenced by their heritage and some may push against it in hopes to be more "American," but the existing literature does not explore these ideas in relationship to the psychology of "survivor's guilt." Do composers feel pressure to preserve their heritage through art making? Do they feel they must make the most of their freedom of expression because generations before did not have access to it? Is there processing of previous generations’ trauma through art making?

Language is often conceived as the vehicle in which legal norms could embed itself. Yet, the law hinges on social and political metaphors that require latent understanding of temporal societal constructs. These complex relations and interactions are encased and deployed in a specific and technical grammar. What would happen if legal texts are written in symbolic, numeric form as opposed to natural language? The project applies linguistic modelling and natural language processing technology, as well as statistical models of context, to deconstruct legal texts to their constituent components. The intent is to build an expert system predicated on alleged rules of legal reasoning. The preliminary hypothesis is that a component analysis, using a variety of techniques, would expose the inherent patterns hidden within legal language.

Existing literature in this domain focuses on the implications of legal technology as a systemic replacement of legal reasoning. While this type of research is valuable, it redirects focus from the nuances of legal processes. Instead, a dive into the translation process – from natural language to code –asks the deeper questions on the underlying operation and mechanics of law. Changing the medium in which the law is written could invoke a necessary shift in the epistemic roots of legal constructions. The project, therefore, investigates whether language is beyond a simple vessel. The field of law and technology would benefit from an analysis at a micro-level. It offers a richer dialogue on the sociological implications of computational law and its potential for the broader legal ecosystem.

Saori Mita’s doctoral research investigates how male homosexuality has been represented in British spy fiction from the 1950s to the 2010s, in multiple media, including literature, film, television and theatre. British culture has historically associated spies with homosexuality, mainly due to the betrayal of the Cambridge Spy ring from the 1950s to the 1970s, and the wider Anglophone world has seen an association between homosexuals and Communism due to the hostile Cold War atmosphere created by McCarthy’s Red Scare. Her research investigates how this history is reflected in the spy genre from the Cold War to the present, in which male homosexual and spy identities intersect as “queer,” in that both are considered discreet and criminal, existing outside of the heteronormative order.


Mita’s research benefits the study of spy fiction by filling a gap in the investigation of homosexual representation. Although espionage and homosexuality have been a palpable undercurrent of many fictional works, very little explicit research has been done on this topic. Her research will offer both a chronicle of the evolution of the genre’s sexual representation and a theory of its representation of homosexuality as a spectral phenomenon. In addition to this, her research contributes to the field of gender studies of literature, film, television, and theatre. Spy fiction occupies a central position in British popular culture, and by exploring this genre in terms of homosexuality, this research will identify the role which same-sex desire has historically played in the British cultural imagination. 

Sahgal's study, 'The Certainty of Tax: Fiscal Relations in Somalia', examines how fiscal relations emerge in more fragile contexts where the very idea of a centralised authority, such a state, is either suspect or contested. In Somalia, in particular, private sector actors have begun paying the state a nominal amount as corporate taxes. This even though some of the conditions considered necessary for mobilising revenue are not found in Somalia, i.e. the state currently does not have a monopoly over coercion, enjoys limited legitimacy, and is unable to deliver on its commitments. Adopting a qualitative approach, this study investigates the validity of three alternative explanations. Specifically, it asks, if relations are an outcome of elite bargains based on preferential access to political privilege, if they are a result of mediated exchanges for resolving collective action problems, or if they are motivated by cultural norms and Islamic values of moral propriety.

Reflecting on these questions, the study hopes to contribute to the broader theoretical debate on conceptualising fiscal relations in fragile and conflict-ridden environments. This is of significance as prevailing concepts of taxation do not fare well in explaining the experience of more fragile polities. By investigating an alternative set of explanations, this research will aim to offer more empirically grounded theses for modelling fiscal relationships. In advocating for the possibility of observing tax relations in contexts where order is maintained by a variety of institutions and actors, this study will also add to the burgeoning field of literature, which questions the "ideal-typical notions of the state" and is instead preoccupied with interrogating the substance of 'real governance'.

Remaking Capitalism in Twentieth-Century Brazil: A Global History explores Brazil’s pivotal but understudied experiment with corporatism in the 1930s and 1940s, a model promising a “third path” between free market capitalism and communism. The book shows how corporatism transformed the Brazilian state into an agent of economic development, and explains why it matters that this transformation was engineered under an authoritarian regime. Centered on the Estado Novo dictatorship under Getúlio Vargas, this book contends that corporatism generated a model of development dependent on uneven and unequal citizenship, in which economic interests – and not individuals – organized and petitioned through the state. It examines state-led efforts to reorganize the national economy in comparative and transnational frameworks, drawing upon related events in the Portuguese Empire under a dictatorship also called “Estado Novo.” This book recovers a forgotten chapter in the history of capitalism, positioning Brazil as a privileged vantage point from which to study twentieth-century struggles over laissez-faire capitalism and state-directed economies, democracy and authoritarianism, or internationalism and nationalism.

Remaking Capitalism in Twentieth-Century Brazil: A Global History  contributes to the history of capitalism as well as to the study of law and society in Brazil. The study of corporatism is typically absent from histories of capitalism, or sidelined as the façade of authoritarian, nationalist, and inward-looking regimes. With Brazil, however, we see the long-lasting consequences of corporatism, and how it was not so different from other experiments with the mixed economy following the Great Depression. Where historians tend to treat state-led development as a post-1945 process, this work argues that corporatism constituted the legal and technical toolkit for the rise of economic planning in the 1930s. As one of the first works to study the economics of corporatism, it follows the circulation of legal and economic ideas across the Atlantic, taking seriously the legal systems designed by authoritarian regimes. By using trials of economic crimes, for example, we see how people navigated – or evaded – new institutions, and how corporatism influenced citizens’ ideas of economic justice and the role of the state in economic life. By illuminating the ideological clashes of interwar decades – free markets versus government planning, liberalism versus fascism, democracy versus dictatorship – the lessons drawn from Brazil can be useful for understanding why these tensions have resurfaced in our contemporary society.  

Abigail Wiese investigates what performance as a medium affords us in better  understanding shame's affect in the post-apartheid South Africa. The study asks how performance can facilitate a way into knowing how bodies experience, relate to and process shame through identifying performance as a means to navigate an often difficult, evasive and deeply subjective experience. Performance is centralised in the inquiry and a qualitative Practice-led/Research-led (PLR/RLP) design with autoethnography as a primary research method is employed. Wiese analyses post-apartheid South African theatre productions, performance art pieces, and visual artworks developing a theoretical and practical discussion around how shame and its affect is worked out in live exchanges between object/performance/assemblage and audience reflecting on the cultural forms of post-apartheid South Africa. In working autoethnographically the affective in-betweens of writing, performing and researching are spoken to, highlighting the temporal dynamics of process-driven work and the confused, unknown and often shame-felt realm in research production.

Wiese’s offers the first study of shame’s affect through the medium of performance in post-apartheid South Africa contributing to the development of a post-apartheid South African performance aesthetic with regards to affect, shame, embodiment and modes of meaning-making. The centralisation of performance in case study analyses begins an articulation into understanding how shame traffics in embodied day to day interactions while attempting to give a language to better identify and voice silenced, repressed and buried experiences. Key South African performances which are current and reflective of the shifting social-political landscape are analysed benefiting studies in anthropology, sociology and psychology. Wiese’s centralisation of the autoethnographic voice in methodology helps to resituate the often discredited area of audience meaning-making by including the analysis of what is internally performed during data collection and the writing process.  This study contributes to the growing fields of performance studies, affect studies and shame theory. 

Laura Bassi

Born in Bologna in 1711, Laura Bassi was the first woman to take up a professorship in Europe and the second to earn a doctorate. Her extraordinary career as an academic spanned nearly five decades, for much of which she was a galvanizing figure for the scientific culture of eighteenth century Europe. Bassi’s admirers included the likes of Voltaire in France, who preferred Bassi’s academy to that of London’s, and Dorothea Erxleben in Germany, the first woman to earn a medical doctorate, who notably found inspiration in Bassi’s fierce struggle for equal opportunity for women. Bassi's career culminated in her succession to the chair of physics (then known as natural philosophy) at the University of Bologna in 1776—a role in which her husband, Giuseppe Veratti, was her assistant.

The Editing Press Laura Bassi Scholarship is named in her honour, in part with the intention of supporting work undertaken against the grain of the disciplinary fashions of academia.

For further reading on Laura Bassi, see:

P Findlen, ‘Science as a Career in Enlightenment Italy: The Strategies of Laura Bassi’ (1993) 84 Isis 441.

The Biblioteca Comunale dell’Archiginnasio di Bologna (in collaboration with the Stanford University Libraries) has compiled a digital archive of Bassi’s family papers, available here.

For further reading on pioneering women academics, philosophers in particular, see:

Project Vox

TB Dykeman (ed), The Neglected Canon: Nine Women Philosophers (Springer 1999)

LL McAlister (ed), Hypatia's Daughters: 1500 Years of Women Philosophers (Indiana University Press 1996)

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